we don’t need another hero . . .

follow your bliss . . .

if you do follow your bliss, you put yourself on a kind of track
that has been there all the while waiting for you and the life
you ought to be living is the one you are living. when you can
see that, you begin to meet people who are in the field of your
bliss and they open the doors to you. i say, follow your bliss
and don’t be afraid and doors will open where you didn’t know they
were going to be. if you follow your bliss, doors will open for
you that wouldn’t have opened for anyone else . . .

joseph campbell

the image below from american conceptual artist barbara kruger . . .

i am addicted to teaching. i have a compulsion to explain the world to others, and to have it explained to me again and again by the students . . .

hans-rudolf lutz

i have to agree with the statement from the late hans-rudolf lutz above,
i too, am addicted to teaching to a greater degree. last semester, i was having
a discussion with my iD kids at the university of applied sciences regensburg
and somehow the topic of “vorbilder” came up (in english, role models) . . .
as we talked some more, i realized they had never heard of achille castiglioni
&/or the design impact of the castiglioni brothers. i was shocked. recently, with
another groups of design students at the oth the topic of design heros came
up and that was the catalyst for this post. that’s why it made sense to me to
begin with joseph campbell as a point of departure. campbell’s renowned work,
“the hero with a thousand faces,” revised edition 2008, is a good place to find
out why we need heros in the first place. campbell’s statement above, where he
encourages young and old alike to, “follow your bliss,” makes it clear that before
we should follow someone else, we need to follow ourselves and use our own
passion as a compass for our direction in life. some famous heros fade with the
perspective of time passing; therefore once powerfully influential historical figures
such as napoléon bonaparte &/or chairman mao zedong are no longer idolize as
they once were. still, if we are interested in creative heros for the twenty-first
century, we can go back over a thousand years to start our list. the names below connote just a tiny sampling among the myriad of individuals in the history of human imagination; an abbreviated and rather incomplete beginning to say the least.

001) mesa verde, colorado (c. 1000 bc.), from nomadism toward permanent pithouse settlements, the archaic mesa verdeans transitioned into a basketmaker culture . . .

002) the great serpent mound, ohio (~ 320 bc. &/or ~1070 ad.), adena culture &/or fort ancient culture, were unique among the ancient ohio valley peoples . . .

003) the great wall of china (~7th century bc.), and later joined together by qin shi huang (220–206 bc.), the first emperor of china. well-known sections of the wall were built by the ming dynasty (1368–1644) . . .

004) saint gregory the great (c. 540 -604), gregorian chants; an early form of musical notation from which the modern four-line and five-line staff developed. gregory is the patron saint of musicians, singers, students & teachers . . .

005) the stone bridge (1135–1146), over the blue danube, to replace the wooden bridge of charlemagne, in regensburg . . .

006) jelaluddin rumi (1207-1273), whirling dervishes as a form of physically active meditation among certain sufi groups, and the mevlevi order, among others . . .

007) thomas aquinas (1225–1274), who embraced aristotle . . .

008) william of ockham (c. 1287–1347), known for occam’s razor;
commemoration is april 10th (today) by the church of england . . .

009) female artisan guilds (1300-1700), in paris, cologne and rouen;
manufacture / entrepreneurship related to silk weaving and other textiles . . .

010) hieronymus bosch (c. 1450-1516), the garden of earthly delights . . .

011) leonardo di ser piero da vinci (1452-1519), the mona lisa, if nothing else . . .

012) lucas cranach the elder (1472-1553), cranach altarpiece, weimar, germany. the triptych was finished by his son, lucas cranach the younger, after his death . . .

013) michelangelo di lodovico buonarroti simoni (1475-1564),
the sistine chapel and saint peter’s basilica . . .

014) giovanni da verrazzano (1485–1528), renowned for exploration of the atlantic coast of north america, between florida and new brunswick, in 1524 . . .

015) galileo di vincenzo bonaulti de galilei (1564-1642),
the galilean satellites (moons) of jupiter . . .

016) william shakespeare (1564-1616), hamlet & macbeth among others . . .

017) johannes kepler (1571-1630), who influenced sir isaac newton . . .

018) blaise pascal (1623-1662), and pascal’s triangle . . .

019) the taj mahal (1632-1653), emperor shah jahan’s gift for his favourite wife, mumtaz mahal . . .

020) baruch spinoza (1632-1677), inspired by the groundbreaking
ideas of rené descartes . . .

021) georg friederich händel (1685-1759), the messiah, among others . . .

022) johann sebastian bach (1685-1750), the goldberg variations and
saint matthew’s passion, among others . . .

023) benjamin franklin (1706-1790), an electrical battery concept in 1749. his kite experiment proves that lightning is a form of electricity in 1752 . . .

024) immanuel kant (1724-1804), was an influential german philosopher in the age of enlightenment . . .

025) franz joseph haydn (1732-1809), known as the father of the string quartet and
a tutor of beethoven . . .

026) the jantar mantar (1734), built by the rajput king sawai jai singh II, the instruments allow the observation of astronomical positions with the naked eye.

027) france / encyclopédie: a systematic dictionary of the sciences, arts & crafts (1751-1772), edited by denis diderot, co-edited by jean le rond d’alembert . . .

028) the first industrial revolution begins in 1760 in england . . .

029) james watt (1736-1819), was a scottish inventor, who improves thomas newcomen’s 1712 steam engine with his watt steam engine in 1776 . . .

030) wolfgang amadeus mozart (1756-1791), prague: don giovanni premiered to the enthusiasm of the bohemians in 1787 . . .

031) napoléon bonaparte (1769-1821), defeats the austrians in 1796 (oh well) . . .

032) richard trevithick (1771-1833), inventor, his most significant contribution was the development of the first high-pressure steam engine . . .

033) the rosetta stone, created in 196 bc., is discovered in 1799 by french soldier during the napoleonic campaign in egypt (alright) . . .

034) lewis & clark expedition (1803-1806), president jefferson commissioned the expedition after the louisiana purchase of 1803. the expedition returned to report its findings with maps, sketches & journals in hand . . .

035) isambard kingdom brunel (1806-1859), british civil engineer; an ingenious and prolific figures in engineering history. brunel’s designs revolutionized public transport and modern engineering . . .

036) abraham lincoln (1809-1865), born in poverty in a log cabin and self-educated, lincoln was an american statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president (1861–1865). lincoln led the nation through its greatest moral, constitutional & political crisis in the american civil war . . .

037) charles robert darwin (1809-1882), was an english naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book, “on the origin of species” . . .

038) elizabeth cady stanton (1815-1902), & susan b. anthony (1820-1906), were american suffragists, social activists, abolitionists & leading figures of the early women’s rights movement. they met in 1851 and became lifelong friends . . .

039) karl heinrich marx (1818-1883), & friedrich engels (1820-1895), both men were german philosophers and social revolutionaries . . .

040) frederick law olmsted (1822-1903), was an american landscape architect considered by some to be the father of american landscape architecture. his later efforts included central park in new york city . . .

041) jean-henri dunant (1828 -1910), was a swiss humanitarian, businessman and social activist. he was the visionary, promoter and co-founder with guillaume henri dufour (1787-1875), théodore maunoir (1806-1869), louis paul amédée appia (1818-1898) & gustave moynier (1826-1910) of what is today, the international red cross & red crescent . . .

042) eadweard muybridge (1830-1904, born edward james muggeridge) was an english-american photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion & early work in motion-picture projection. in 1887, muybridge published, “animal locomotion” . . .

043) samuel langhorne clemens (1835-1910), was an american writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher & lecturer, known by his pen name mark twain . . .

044) oscar-claude monet (1840-1926), was a founder of french impressionist painting and the most consistent & prolific practitioner of the movement’s philosophy . . .

045) alexander graham bell (1847-1922), was a scottish-born american inventor, scientist & engineer who is credited with inventing & patenting the first practical telephone. bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist & refused to have a telephone in his study . . .

046) george eastman (1854-1932), was an american entrepreneur & philanthropist, who founded the eastman kodak company and helped to bring the photographic use of roll film into the mainstream. kodachrome was one of the first successful color materials & was used for both cinematography & still photography . . .

047) john dewey (1859-1952), was an american philosopher, psychologist & educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. he is regarded as one of the most prominent american scholars in
the first half of the twentieth century . . .

048) karl elsener (1860-1918), was a swiss cutler, inventor and entrepreneur. he developed his swiss army knife manufacturing company into victorinox . . .

049) margaret macdonald mackintosh (1864-1933), & charles rennie mackintosh (1868-1928), located in glasgow, were influential with the art nouveau movement internationally . . .

050) marie skłodowska curie (1867-1934), was a polish and naturalized-french physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. she was only woman to win the nobel prize twice and she was also the first woman to become a professor at the university of paris . . .

051) orville wright & wilbur wright (1871-1948 & 1867-1912, respectively), the wright brothers, from dayton ohio, were two american aviation pioneers generally credited with the world’s first flight; orville piloted the flight that lasted just 12 seconds & 120 feet, on december 17, 1903 . . .

052) thomas john watson sr. (1874-1956), was an american businessman. he served as the chairman & ceo of international business machines (ibm). watson was leading self-made industrialist, quoted as saying, “the great accomplishments of man have resulted from the transmission of ideas and enthusiasm” . . .

053) sir ernest henry shackleton (1874-1922), was an irish antarctic explorer; a principal figures of the period known as the heroic age of antarctic exploration . . .

054) anna eleanor roosevelt (1884-1962), was an american diplomat, activist and first lady of the united states from 1933 to 1945. she served as a united states delegate to the united nations’ general assembly from 1945 until 1952 and as the first chair of the presidential commission on the status of women . . .

055) edward henry weston (1886-1958), was an american photographer. in 1923 weston moved to mexico city where he opened a photographic studio with his apprentice & lover, tina modotti. while in mexico, weston was hailed as a master of his art . . .

056) jun’ichirō tanizaki 谷崎 潤一郎 (1886-1965), was one of the major writers of modern japanese literature; frequently his stories are narrated in the context of a search for cultural identity in which constructions of the west & japanese tradition are juxtaposed. among his works: “in praise of shadows” . . .

057) georgia totto o’keeffe (1887-1986), was an american artist. after alfred stieglitz’s death (1864-1946), she lived solely in her home & studio in abiquiú, new mexico. the georgia o’keeffe museum, santa fe, was established after 1986 . . .

058) henri-robert-marcel duchamp (1887-1968), was a french-american artist whose work is associated with conceptual art.duchamp is commonly regarded, along with picasso & matisse, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the arts in the 20th century . . .

059) richard buckminster fuller (1895-1983), was an american inventor, systems theorist & designer. during 1948 & 1949 fuller was invited to teach at black mountain college, north carolina. fuller had kenneth snelson (1927-2016) as a student; snelson claimed that fuller took credit for snelson’s discovery, named tensegrity . . .

060) alexander jusserand kostellow (1897-1954), was a persian-born american educator, painter & industrial designer. he studied in paris & the university of berlin. in 1916 he came to u.s, where he studied painting at the national academy, the art student’s league & the kansas city art institute, at the kansas city art institute, he met & married rowena reed (1900-1988) (see below). he & his wife left in 1936, for pratt institute to join the faculty there under donald r. dohner (1897-1943). in 1952, he created an experimental design laboratory at pratt; in 1959 pratt formally established a department of industrial design & in 1962, alexander’s wife, rowena, was named chair of the department, a position she held until 1966 . . .

061) sophie henriette gertrud täuber-arp (swiss, 1889-1943), & hans peter wilhelm arp (german-french 1886-1966), were dadaist / abstract artist. sophie täuber-arp is considered one of the most important artists of concrete art & geometric abstraction of the 20th century. hans arp, better known as jean arp in english, was a sculptor, painter & poet. in europe alone, there are three arp foundations . . .

062) pearl s. buck, also known by her chinese name sai zhenzhu; chinese: 赛珍珠 (1892-1973) she won the pulitzer prize in 1932 and was the first american woman to win the nobel prize in literature in 1938 . . .

063) marianne brandt (1893-1983), german artist / designer who studied at the bauhaus in weimar and became head of the bauhaus metal workshop in dessau in 1927 . . .

064) martha graham (1894-1991), was an american modern dancer & choreographer. she was the first dancer to perform at the white house, travel abroad as a cultural ambassador, and receive the highest civilian award of the usa: the presidential medal of freedom with distinction.

065) margarete “grete” schütte-lihotzky (1897-2000), was an austrian architect & a communist activist in the german resistance to nazism; she is mostly remembered today for designing the frankfurt kitchen . . .

066) amelia mary earhart (1897-1937), was an american aviation pioneer and author. she first female aviator to fly solo across the atlantic ocean . . .

067) alexander calder (1898-1976), was an american sculptor who, graduated in 1919 from stevens institute of technology in hoboken, new jersey with a degree in mechanical engineering. in 1926, calder moved to paris, while in paris the engineer invents a new form of sculpture with kinetic objects the name of these sculptures was given by calder’s friend marcel duchamp: mobiles . .

068) rowena reed kostellow (1900-1988), taught as a professor in the industrial design department, at pratt institute, for 40 years. born in kansas city, missouri, she pursued a bachelor of arts degree in journalism from the university of missouri & later studied sculpture at the kansas city art institute. at the kansas city art institute, she met & married alexander kostellow (1897-1954)(see above). both came to pittsburgh in 1929 to teach at carnegie institute of technology, she in sculpture & he in painting. she & her husband left in 1936, for pratt institute, brooklyn new york, to join the faculty there under donald r. dohner (1897-1943). alongside her husband & donald dohner, she co-founded the first industrial design education course at pratt institute. in 1959 pratt formally established a department of industrial & in 1962, rowena reed kostellow was named chair of the department, a position she held until 1966 . . .

069) louis isadore kahn (born itze-leib schmuilowsky; 1901-1974), was an american architect. he served as a design critic & professor of architecture at yale school of architecture from 1947 to 1957. from 1957 until his death, he was a professor of architecture in the school of design, at the university of pennsylvania. kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century . . .

070) jean prouvé (1901-1984) was a french both engineer & designer. le corbusier designated prouvé a constructeur. prouvé’s main achievement was transferring manufacturing technology from industry without losing aesthetic qualities. prouvé was once quoted saying, “never design anything that cannot be made” . . .

071) margaret mead (1901-1978), was an american cultural anthropologist who was often controversial as an academic. she was a proponent of broadening sexual conventions within the context of western cultural traditions . . .

072) henry charles beck (1902-1974), was an english technical draughtsman who created the present london underground tube map in 1931 . . .

073) dame jocelyn barbara hepworth (1903-1975), was an english artist & sculptor. her work exemplifies modernism and she was one of the few female artists of her generation to achieve international prominence . . .

074) harold eugene “doc” edgerton (1903-1990) was a professor of electrical engineering at the massachusetts institute of technology. he is largely credited with transforming the stroboscope from an obscure laboratory instrument into a common device. he also was deeply involved with the development of sonar & deep-sea photography . . .

075) johann georg elser (1903-1945), was an inventor & a “schwabische tüftler”. . .

076) isamu noguchi 野口 勇 (1904-1988), was a japanese-american artist / designer / landscape architect whose artistic career spanned six decades. known for his sculpture & public works, noguchi also designed stage sets for various martha graham (1894-1991) productions as well as mass-produced akari light sculptures & furniture (with the herman miller company). the noguchi museum, in ncy, founded by isamu noguchi is committed to advancing the appreciation of art & his legacy . . .

077) henry dreyfuss (1904-1972), was an industrial design pioneer. dreyfuss is known for designing some of the most iconic devices found in america in the twentieth century. dreyfuss enjoyed long term associations with several companies such as john deere, polaroid, & american airlines. in 1960 he published, “the measure of man,” a collection of ergonomic reference charts for product design. in 1965, dreyfuss became the first president of the industrial designers society of america (idsa) . . .

078) carlo mollino (1905-1973), was an italian architect, designer & photographer. mollino’s interest was in a variety of topics such as design, architecture, the occult & racing cars. his credo, “everything is permissible, as long as it is fantastic” . . .

079) eva striker zeisel (1906 -2011), was a hungarian-born american industrial designer known for her work with ceramics. her forms are often abstractions of the natural world. zeisel declared herself a “maker of useful things” . . .

080) samuel “billy” wilder (1906-2002), was an austrian-born american film director & screenwriter, whose career spanned more than five decades. wilder established his directorial reputation with a film noir adaption of james m. cain’s, “double indemnity,” in 1944 . . .

081) charles ormond eames, jr. (1907–1978), & bernice alexandra “ray” kaiser eames (1912–1988), were american industrial designers who made significant contributions to modern design through the work of their office . . .

082) henri cartier-bresson (1908-2004), was a french humanist photographer andone of the founding members of magnum photos in 1947 . . .

083) edwin herbert land (1909-1991), was an american scientist and inventor, best known as the co-founder of the polaroid corporation . . .

084) livio castiglioni (1911-1979), pier giacomo castiglioni (1913-1968), & achille castiglioni (1918-2002), were italian architects / designers of furniture, lighting, radiograms and other objects. achille castiglioni won the golden compass, italy’s top prize for industrial design, nine times . . .

085) alan mathison turing (1912-1954) was an english mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher and theoretical biologist. turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer. he is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence . . .

086) thor heyerdahl (1914-2002), was a norwegian adventurer & ethnographer. heyerdahl is notable for his kon-tiki expedition, in which he sailed 8,000 km across the pacific ocean in a hand-built raft from south america to the tuamotu islands. heyerdahl gave evidence to the possibility of contact between widely separated ancient peoples . . .

087) harry bertoia (1915-1978), was an italian-born american artist, sound art sculptor & furniture designer . . .

088) tapio veli ilmari wirkkala (1915-1985), was a finnish designer / sculptor known for, among others, his designs of finlandia vodka bottles. wirkkala worked as the artistic director at the helsinki central school of industrial design . . .

089) ettore sottsass (1917-2007), was an italian architect / designer. his body of work included objects, products as well as buildings & interiors. sottsass designed the olivetti valentine typewriter in 1969 with perry a. king. sottsass founded the memphis group after the bob dylan song, “stuck inside of mobile with the memphis blues again,” in 1980 . . .

090) nelson rolihlahla mandela (1918-2013), was a south african anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader & philanthropist who served as president of south africa from 1994 to 1999. he was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election . . .

091) hans scholl (1918–1943), & sophia magdalena scholl (1921-1943), the white rose was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in the third reich led by a group of students including hans and sophie scholl. they attended the university of munich . . .

092) paolo soleri (1919-2013), was an italian architect. he established the educational cosanti foundation and arcosanti. he coined the concept of ‘arcology,’ a synthesis of architecture and ecology as a philosophy of a democratic society . . .

093) mercier philip “merce” cunningham (1919-2009), was an american dancer & choreographer who was at the forefront of american modern dance for more than 50 years. he was notable for frequent collaboration with artists of other disciplines, including musicians john cage, david tudor, brian eno & graphic artists robert rauschenberg, bruce nauman, andy warhol, roy lichtenstein, frank stella & jasper johns . . .

094) john aaron lewis (1920-2001), was an american jazz pianist, composer & arranger, best known as the founder and musical director of the modern jazz quartet, with milton “bags” jackson (1923-1999) jazz vibraphonist, conrad henry kirnon (1927-1994) known professionally as connie kay, a self-taught jazz drummer & percy heath (1923-2005) a jazz bassist . . .

095) johans “hans” gugelot (1920-1965), was an indonesian-born, dutch industrial designer. in 1948, gugelot was hired by max bill (1908-1994), to teach at the the ulm school of design. gugelot is quoted as saying, “design ist gar nicht lehrbar” . . . in 1954, gugelot met erwin braun; gugelot created a number of designs for braun, including the braun sk 4 (which he designed with dieter rams) . . .

096) armin hofmann (1920-2020), is a swiss graphic designer & educator (emeritus in 1987). he taught at the basel school of design & became head of the design school after emil ruder. hofmann himself, along with his colleagues & students, were integral to work & theories that surrounded the swiss international style. hofmann’s design manual (1965) was & still is, a reference book that set a new standard & became widely known by graphic designers throughout the world . . .

097) jack werner stauffacher (1920-2017) was an american printer, typographer, educator and fine book publisher. stauffacher owned and operated greenwood press, a small book printing press based in the san francisco bay area. as an educator he taught classes in design, typography, and printmaking at carnegie mellon university, stanford university, university of california, santa cruz and
the san francisco art institute . . .

098) federico fellini (1920-1993), was an italian film director & screenwriter known for his distinctive visual narrative. he received an honorary award for lifetime achievement at the 65th academy awards . . .

099) robert glenn smith (1922-2017), was an american industrial designer par excellence. he studied industrial design at pratt institute, graduating in 1951.later, he became designer with harley earl associates. this led to raymond loewy associates; which led to nine years at lippincott & margulies. 1967-1983 he was the manager & then chairman of jc penny design system. he served as the president of the industrial design society of america from 1981-1983. upon retiring, he taught the history of industrial design at risd for five years & he almost always displayed a positive attitude . . .

100) otto “otl” aicher (1922-1991), was a german graphic designer & typographer. he was know for his system of pictograms for the 1972 summer olympics in munich. aicher co-founded, in 1953, the ulm school of design (hochschule für gestaltung ulm) along with his wife, **inge aicher-scholl (1917-1998) & swiss designer / architect / artist, max bill (1908-1994). **also see hans & sophia scholl; the white rose . . .

101) edmund “ted” snow carpenter (1922-2011), was an american anthropologist best known for his work on tribal art & visual media. carpenter offers a succinct analysis of modern media based on years of participant observation in different cultures . . .

102) victor joseph papanek (1923-1998), was an austrian-american designer & educator that wrote the book, “designing for the real world.” he also wrote that, “design has become the most powerful tool with which man shapes his tools & environments (by extension, society & himself)” . . .

103) william katavolos (1924-2020), was co-director of the center for experimental structures (liquid architecture has been developed there). professor w. katavolos had been part of the school of architecture at pratt institute, brookyln, new york, since the sixties. his furniture is in the permanent collections of the museum of modern art, the metropolitan museum of art & the louvre . . .

104) george tscherny (1924-2023), was a hungarian-born american graphic designer & educator. before starting his own studio tscherny had worked for george nelson (1908–1986) associates, inc. he has received some of the highest honors among graphic designers . . .

105) robert frank (1924-2019), was a swiss-american binational photographer & documentary filmmaker. his most notable work, the 1958 book titled, “the americans,” it remains perhaps the most influential book of photography in the 20th century . . .

106) frei paul otto (1925-2015), was a german architect & structural engineer. among his work is roof of the 1972 summer olympics stadium in munich. otto was awarded the riba royal gold medal in 2006 and the pritzker prize in 2015 . . .

107) paul b. mac cready jr. (1925-2007), was an american aeronautical engineer. he was the designer of the human-powered aircraft that won the first kremer prize. he devoted his life to developing more efficient transportation vehicles that could, “do more with less” . . .

108) miles dewey davis III (1926-1991), was an american jazz trumpeter, bandleader & composer. he is among the most influential and acclaimed figures in the history of jazz and 20th-century music . . .

109) vivian maier (1926-2009) was an american photographer. although born in new york city, it was in france that maier spent most of her youth. maier would return to the u.s. in 1951. she had begun to venture into the art of photography. consistently taking photos, she would ultimately leave over 100,000 negatives, mostly shot in chicago & new york city (a most fascinating windows into american life in the second half of the twentieth century) . . .

110) count hubert james marcel taffin de givenchy (1927-2018), was a french fashion designer who founded the house of givenchy in 1952. he designed for, among others, audrey hepburn & jacqueline lee bouvier kennedy onassis . . .

111) adrian johann frutiger (1928-2015), was a swiss typeface designer who influenced the direction of type design in the second half of the 20th century. frutiger’s most famous designs, univers, frutiger & avenir. univers was notable for being one of the first sans-serif faces to form a consistent but wide-ranging family, across a range of widths & weights . . .

112) james arthur lovell jr. (born 1928), john leonard swigert jr. (1931-1982), & fred wallace haise jr. (born 1933), the apollo 13 mission and duct tape ingenuity . . .

113) martin luther king jr. (1929-1968), was an american christian minister & activist who became a visible spokesperson in the civil rights movement. king was inspired by his beliefs and the nonviolent activism of mahatma gandhi. he said, “intelligence plus character – that is the true goal of education.” & “almost always the creative dedicated minority has made the world better” . . .

114) donald clarence judd (1928-1994), was an american artist. judd sought autonomy & clarity for the constructed object; ultimately achieving a rigorously democratic presentation. an unorthodox outpouring of seemingly effervescent works . . .

115) kenneth l. hunnibell (1929-2002), taught as a professor in the industrial design department, at rhode island school of design (risd), for 40 years. ken was a member of the industrial design society of america (idsa). ken received risd degrees in industrial design (bfa) & graduate studies (mae). ken found tremendous inspiration in working with students, faculty & alumni from around the world. ken was one of the first id educators in the country to teach ecological awareness in design and he strongly advocated for those values through local, regional & national venues . . .

116) audrey hepburn (1929-1993), was a british actress and humanitarian as well as a film / fashion icon. she received the presidential medal of freedom in recognition of her work as a unicef goodwill ambassador in 1992 . . .

117) jean-luc godard (1930-2022), is a french-swiss film director, screenwriter & film critic. he rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s french new wave film movement. among his work, “breathless,” (à bout de souffle), starring jean-paul belmondo & jean seberg from 1960 . . .

118) samuel cook (1931-1964), known professionally as sam cooke, was an american singer, songwriter, civil-rights activist & entrepreneur.his pioneering contributions to soul music contributed to the rise of aretha franklin, bobby womack, al green, curtis mayfield, stevie wonder, marvin gaye & billy preston . . .

119) massimo & lella vignelli (1931-2014 & 1934-2016, respectively), were italian designers within the modernist tradition; they shared a lifelong collaborative working relationship & a 40-year practice: vignelli associates. in 2009, the vignellis released, “the vignelli canon as a free e-book; its ethos was, “if you can design one thing, you can design everything.” just before his death in 2013, massimo authored, “designed by: lella vignelli -” a compendium of his wife’s many unheralded contributions to design. . . .

120) ingo maurer (1932-2019), a son of a fisherman, became a german industrial designer who specialised in the importance of light; his nickname: “poet of light” . . .

121) ken garland (1932-2021), was a british graphic designer. garland’s “first things first manifesto,” was written and published in 1964. an updated version of the earlier manifesto (first things first manifesto 2000) was launched by adbusters magazine in 1999. its aim was to generate discussion about the graphic design profession’s priorities in the press and at design schools.

122) richard sapper (1932-2015), was a german industrial designer based in milan, italy. he is considered as one of the most important designers of his generation . . .

123) hans “nick” roericht (born 1932), is a german product designer & educator. roericht studied at the school of design ulm. while a student, he designed, what would become, the rosenthal (thomas) tc100 stacking tableware, produced from 1962 until 2006 (also selected for the museum of modern art, new york). roericht taught one year (1966-67) at the ohio state university; that’s where he was given the nickname, nick (hfg ulm graduate reinhart butter accepted an invitation at osu afterwards & stayed until he became professor emeritus in 2007). roericht went on to berlin’s university of the arts (udk), teaching until 2002 (professor emeritus) . . .

124) zenzile miriam makeba (1932-2008), born in johannesburg, south africa and nicknamed mama africa, makeba was a singer, songwriter (associated with musical genres including afropop, jazz, & world music), actress, and civil rights activist (as early as the late 50’s, she was an outspoken advocate against apartheid) . . .

125) karl otto lagerfeld (1933-2019), was a german fashion designer who was known as the creative director of couturière chanel . . .

126) robert arthur moog (1934-2005), was an american engineer and pioneer of electronic music; inventor of the first commercial synthesizer in 1964 . . .

127) mary lee bendolph (born 1935), is an american quilt maker of the gee’s bend collective from gee’s bend (boykin), alabama. her work has been influential on subsequent quilters & artists; her work has been featured in the philadelphia museum of art as well as the minneapolis institute of art in minnesota. mary lee bendolph uses fabric from used clothing for quilting in appreciation of the “love & spirit” with old cloth . . .

128) peter rice (1935-1992), was an irish structural engineer and was renowned for his innate ability to act as both an engineer and a designer. rice’s projects included the sydney opera house (ove arup), the pompidou centre & the home of lloyd’s of london. rice’s book, “an engineer imagines,” was posthumously published . . .

129) stephen michael reich (born 1936), is an american composer known for his contribution to the development of minimal music, with work such as his piece, “music for 18 musicians” . . .

130) marc harrison (1936-1998), was an industrial designer, educator & helped develop the idea of universal design. harrison graduated from industrial design at pratt institute & received a masters from cranbrook academy of art. harrison’s brain injury (at the age of 11) created a passion for industrial design and he wanted to make the world more accessible for all people with or without disabilities.

131) matthew carter (born 1937), is a british type designer. carter’s most used fonts are the classic web fonts verdana & georgia . . .

132) robert wilson (born 1941) is an american experimental theater stage director. he is best known for his collaborations with philip glass (born 1937), on “einstein on the beach,.”he studied business at the university of texas & environmental design at pratt institute, brooklyn, new york. wilson established the watermill center as, “a laboratory for performance” in 1991 . . .

133) james turrell (born 1943), is an american artist primarily concerned with light & space. turrell is best known for his work in progress, the roden crater, located outside flagstaff, arizona . . .

134) heiner jacob (1943-2013), was a german graphic designer & educator. he studied visual communication at the school of design ulm & city planning at rutgers university, new jersey. he worked with otl aicher’s (1922-1991) group on the now, world famous, designs for the olympic summer games in 1972. from 1991 until 2010, he taught corporate identity at köln international school of design (kisd) . . .

135) samuel “sambo” mockbee (1944-2001), was an american architect and a co-founder of the auburn university’s rural studio program, hale county, alabama . . .

136) ernst wilhelm “wim” wenders (born 1945), is a german film maker. he has received 3 nominations for the academy award’s for, “buena vista social club.” also see *ryland peter cooder / ry cooder. one of his best: the american friend (der amerikanische freund), with dennis hopper & bruno ganz . . .

137) ryland peter cooder / ry cooder (born 1947), is an american musician, songwriter, film score composer & record producer. he is a multi-instrumentalist but is best known for his slide guitar work. cooder also produced the “buena vista social club album,” which became a worldwide hit. * also see, ernst wilhelm “wim” wenders . . .

138) theodorus gerardus jozef “theo” jansen (born 1948), is a dutch artist. his animated strandbeest are a fusion of art & engineering; they are large kinetic sculptures with mechanisms. he has said that, “the walls between art & engineering exist only in our minds” . . .

139) grace beverly jones (born 1948), is a jamaican model, singer, songwriter and actress. she has worked with, among others, jean-paul goude, helmut newton, guy bourdin & hans feurer; she is known for her distinctive appearance . . .

140) aline kominsky-crumb (born 1948), & robert dennis crumb (born 1943), are american underground comics artists. comics alliance lists kominsky-crumb as 1 of 12 women cartoonists deserving of lifetime achievement recognition. r. crumb is founder of the underground publication, zap comix. r. crumb has introduced a wide variety of counter cultural icons, e.g. fritz the cat & mr. natural …

141) tucker l. viemeister (born 1948), is an american industrial designer, educator & a fellow of the industrial designers society of america. tucker was named for a car his father was designing at the time, in 1948, the tucker sedan. read viemeister (1923–1993) was an industrial designer, fidsa, & founded vie design studios, in yellow springs, ohio with budd steinhilber (1942-2021) . . .

142) brian peter george saint john le baptiste de la salle eno (born 1948), is an english musician (a self-described “non-musician”), composer, record producer and visual artist. he is best known for his pioneering contributions to the ambient music and electronic genres and for his work in rock, artistic pop and minimalist music . . .

143) william richard frisell (born 1951), is an american guitarist, composer, arranger and stalwart for ecm records. frisell’s eclectic output as a bandleader has emphasized folk, country music and americana . . .

144) peter fischli (born 1952), & david weiss (1946-2012), were an artist duo that collaborated beginning in 1979 and their best-known work is the film, “the way things go,” (auf deutsch; der lauf der dinge) from 1987 . . .

145) patricia moore (born 1952), is an american industrial designer, author & leader in the development of universal design. moore is a fidsa (fellow of the industrial designers society of america); she was named one of the most notable industrial designers in america . . .

146) ted muehling (born 1953), has been designing jewellery & objects inspired by natural shapes since 1976. he studied industrial design at pratt institute in brooklyn, new york. muehling has been designing a variety of collections & objects for porzellan manufaktur nymphenburg since 1999 . . .

147) humberto (born 1953) & fernando (born 1961) campana are brazilian product designers.the campana brothers teamed up to make furniture from ordinary materials including scrap and waste products such as cardboard, rope, cloth and wood scraps, plastic tubes and aluminium wire. the campana brothers were able to exhibit their work at the museum of modern art, manhattan, in 1998 . . .

148) nancy skolos & thomas wedell (born 1955 & born~1950, respectively), are american graphic designers & co-founders of skolos-wedell studio. skolos attended the university of cincinnati for two years in the industrial design department, transferring to cranbrook academy of art. wedell began his education as a photo major at layton school of art in milwaukee & continue his education at cranbrook. they met at cranbrook in 1975 & the pair married in 1979. in 2017, they were awarded the aiga medal for, “pushing the boundaries of art, design & technology with a distinctive vision to find connection among disparate forms.” both teach at rhode island school of design (risd); skolos served as head of the graphic design department & as the dean of architecture + design . . .

149) lars müller (born 1955), is a norwegian graphic designer, who lives & works in switzerland since 1963. as of 1983, he publishes (on the topics of typography, art, photography, architecture & design) books. he has also taught at universities in switzerland & abroad . . .

150) uta barth (born 1958), is a german-american photographer whose work addresses themes such as perception, optical illusion & non-place. her work is as much about vision and perception as it is about the failure to see. barth says, “the question for me always is how can i make you aware of your own looking, instead of losing your attention to thoughts about what it is that you are looking at” . . .

151) maya ying lin (born 1959) is an american designer / architect / artist. lin has stated that she draws her inspiration from the architecture of nature. she won a national competition to design the vietnam veterans memorial in washington, d.c. at the age of 21, while still a student . . .

152) francis alÿs (born 1959) is a belgian-born, mexico-based artist.his work emerges in the interdisciplinary space of art, architecture, and social practice. he has created a diverse body of artwork and performance art that explores urban tensions and geopolitics . . .

153) jasper morrison (born 1959), is an english product designer. he received a master’s degree in design from the royal college of art, london and also studied at the university of the arts, berlin. among his work, he compiled 204 everyday objects with naoto fukasawa in search of super normal design . . .

154) allan chochinov (born~1961), is a north american designer who received his master of industrial design at pratt institute, brooklyn, new york. he is partner of core77, the design network serving a global community of designers & design enthusiasts, since 1995. he is also the founding chair of the mfa in products of design, graduate program at the school of visual arts . . .

155) betsy goodrich (born~1961), is an american designer & is a fellow of the industrial designers society of america (fidsa). she has a bachelor’s of science in industrial design from the university of the arts, philadelphia, pennsylvania. betsy is vice president of design at manta; she has been involved in product development for the past twenty years in both consulting & corporate design. she currently serves on the idsa committee on environmental concerns . . .

156) hella jongerius (born 1963), she studied design at the design academy in eindhoven and is a dutch industrial designer . . .

157) karl t. ulrich (born~1965), holds bachelor’s, master’s & doctoral degrees in mechanical engineering from massachusetts institute of technology. currently he is vice dean of entrepreneurship & innovation at the wharton school of the university of pennsylvania. at penn., as a professor of mechanical engineering, he co-founded the integrated product design program . . .

158) ronan bouroullec & erwan bouroullec (born 1971 & born 1976) respectively,
in quimper, france. the brothers are internationally noted for their design work; which, in 2011, has had a major retrospective at the centre pompidou-metz. this exhibit then traveled to the museum of contemporary art, in chicago illinois . . .

159) franklin christenson “chris” ware (born 1967), is an american cartoonist known for, among others, his acme novelty library series & building stories. his works explore themes of social isolation, emotional torment & depression. he tends to use a vivid color palette, realistic & meticulous detail. his lettering & images often evoke another early 20th-century americana . . .

160) kiersten muenchinger (born c. 1976), is an associate professor & the head of the department of product design at the university of oregon. she is an active member of the industrial designers society of america . . .

161) emily pilloton (born c. 1980), is a designer, builder and founder of the nonprofit project h design and its sister program, girls garage. she is also currently a lecturer in the college of environmental design at the university of california, berkeley . . .

to be continued . . .

posted 10 April 2020

categories design, education